SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF WAAS CHARTER MEMBERS
Pierre Victor Auger (May 14, 1899 – December 25, 1993) was a French physicist, born in Paris. He worked in the fields of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and cosmic ray physics. He was a fellow of the Royal Society in 1908 and the chief architect of ESRO and the first representative of france to the executive council of UNESCO,Director of the Department of Sciences for the UNESCO.
He discovered the movements of electrons within the shells of an atom and known for the auger effect. He is also the discoverer of the giant airshowers generated by the interaction of very high-energy cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere. He received many awards from French scientific academy.
The world's largest cosmic ray detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, is named after him.
ISAAC BERENBLUM, M.D., M.Sc was born in France and settled in Israel. died in April 17, 2000. He was a Biologist . He was the Professor Emeritus and Head of Department of Experimental Biology at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. And former staff of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at Oxford University. His field is experimental cancer research with special reference to the mechanism of carcinogenesis.
Professor BERENBLUM -besides his numerous scientific publications and invited lectures in all continents - is author of the book "Man Against Cancer" He was the inspiration of Weizmann Institute’s scientists in fighting against cancer. He died on April 17, 2000.
Address : Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
Lord JOHN BOYD ORR, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., LLD., D.Sc., M.D.: Nutritionist of UK. Apart from his extensive research and organisatory work in animal and human nutrition in the service of the British Commonwealth, he taught as Professor of Agriculture at the University of Aberdeen. He was the Director General of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
He was instrumental in presenting, for the first time in history, a precise appraisal of the world food situation and in inducing governments to cooperate in the International Emergency Food Council and related common enterprises.
He won the 1949 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to alleviate world hunger. Lord BOYD ORR is one of the Charter Members and the first President of the World Academy of Art and Science.
Address: Newton of Stracathro, Brechin, Scotland.
Hugo Boyko : Gr. Boyko, famous ecologist, was born on 6th Oct 1892 in Vienna, Austria. And settled in Israel. He was the Ecological Adviser in PM's office of Israel. Ecological Consultant of UNESCO along with his wife Elizabeth Boyko. Vice-President of International Society of Biometeorology. And One of the Founder of WAAS which published 6 volumes of works under his inspiring guidance.
From 1936-44 he carried out research on desert ecology in all the Middle East countries except Saudi Arabia and Iraq; He concentrated on the development of deserts and arid zones in general and published more than 100 scientific papers and books on plant sociology, ecological climatography, salt water irrigation in relation to weather and climate and many other related subjects.
He was awarded the William F. Petersen Foundation Award for his outstanding work in the field of Phytobiometeorology, in particular for his studies on the effect of weather and climate on salt water irrigation.
Address: i Ruppin Street, Rehovot, Israel
Lyle Kenneth Bush Prof. of Art was born in Washington 1922, and died on February 15, 1975. Brother Bush traveled as a Field Secretary in 1927 and 1928. He also served as Ritualist from 1936 to 1937. He was the first associate professor of Art at Simmons College. He taught for 20 years. Internationally known for his teaching philosophy, voiced particularly in his papers in the Harvard Educational Review and in the Simmons Review, where he regards current schisms between cultural and scientific criteria to be a major handicap to meaningful survival.
Upon his retirement in 1963, Simmons established The Lyle K. Bush Art Fund to help build the College's art collection. His active participation in the foundation of the World Academy has as its particular aim to help in building the necessary bridge.
Address: King Arthur Way, Duxbury, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Ritchie Calder: Scottish author, journalist and academic settled in UK. He was the President of the National Peace Council; Founder member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament: and a life peer as Baron Ritchie-Calder. In 1941 he became popular with his book "Carry on London", which described the effects of the German bombardment of London, Coventry and other cities in Great Britain.
After the war Ritchie-Calder returned to his former activities as a writer and specialised in internationalism, the peace movement and in the public understanding of science. In 1955, Calder recorded and released an album on Folkways Records entitled, "Science in Our Lives". He received the prestigious Kalinga prize in 1960.
G. Brock Chisholm: Medical practitioner from Canada. He was the Director-General of World Health Organization; Honorary President of the World Federalists of Canada and President of the World Federation of Mental Health (1957 - 1958). He was one of 16 international experts consulted in drafting the agency's[WHO] first constitution. In 1959, the American Humanist Association named him Humanist of the Year. He received numerous honorary degrees and was made a Companion of the Order of Canada in 1967.
PIERRE CHOUARD, D.es Sc. : French ecologist died on 11th December 1983 at the age of 80. He was former Director of Phytotron (CNRS) in Gif, professor of Plant Physiology at the Sorbonne, Professor at the National School of Horticulture, Editor-in-Chief of Revue Horticole, and a Member of the Academy of Agriculture. He was the first to recognize the diversity of control mechanisms regulating the transition of herbaceous plants to reproductive development, including such factors as plant size, and age and organ correlations. Only observation of tens of contrasting wild species and cultivars of ornamental plants enabled such generalization to be made.
Prof. Chouard was also called the 'father of French phytotron' which became a new branch of Botany.; He organized at least four International meetings on phytotronics and in 1972 started to issue the Phytotronic Newsletter.; For his activities in Desert Research, he was appointed by UNESCO as one of the nine members of the International Advisory Committee for Arid Zone Research.
Address : Laboratoire de Physiologic Vegetale, i Rue Victor Cousin, Paris, France.
Maurice Ewing : American oceanographer (1906–1974) a leader in modern earth science research, especially in the applications of geophysics to oceanography. He was the founder (established in 1949) and first Director of Lamont Geological Observatory (now known as Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) in Palisades, New York). He served as president of the American Geophysical Union and the Seismological Society of America.
He led over 50 oceanic expeditions. He made many contributions to oceanography, including the discovery of the SOFAR Channel, and did much work fundamental on plate tectonics. He was the chief scientist on board the Glomar Challenger. He came up with the idea behind Project Mogul. He has won numerous medals like Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vega Medal, Penrose Medal to name a few.
RICHARD MONTGOMERY FIELD, Ph.D. (Harvard) : An internationally acknowledged Geologist, born Jamaica Plain, Mass., April 21, 1885; died September 17, 1961. Ph.D., 1918, Harvard Univ. Taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Brown Univ. Professor of Geology, Princeton Univ., 1923-1950. Chairman of Special Committee on Geophysical and Geological Study of Ocean Basins 1932-1941. Received William Bowie Medal, 1954.
He worked many years in the framework of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics as Chairman of the International Committee for the Social Value of Natural Sciences. In this capacity he organized, together with the late JOHN A. FLEMING, the International Conference on Science and Human Welfare, Washington, D.C, 1956, which led to the election of the International Preparatory Committee for the World Academy of Art and Science.
Address: American Institute for Geonomy and Natural Resources, South Duxbury, Mass., U.S.A.
H. Munro Fox : British Zoologist. He was the Fellow of the Royal Society in 1937 and a professor of zoology at Bedford College, London. Fox, a zoologist of wide interests, is best known for his work on invertebrate blood pigments. Fox showed by laboratory experiments in the 1940s that the response of breaking down blood hemoglobin in 'Daphnia', was controlled by the level of dissolved oxygen in the water. He was awarded the Darwin Medal of Royal Society.
Francis Raymond Fosberg, 1908-1993 US. Ecologist, Specialities in Fungi and Lichens, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes. One of the leading authorities on the plant diversity and ecology of Pacific islands; He has written the following books: A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon - Volume 1; Flora Ceylon V6 Revised; The flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands; Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands; The Forsters and the Botany of the Second Cook Expedition.
J. Heimanns is a Botanist from Netherlands.
A. Katchalsky : Aharon Katchalsky-Katzir, well known Physico-Chemist, was born in 1913 in Lodz, Poland and emigrated to Jerusalem in 1922, where he studied in the Hebrew Gymnasium. He was a pioneer in the study of the electrochemistry of biopolymers. He was the president of the Israel Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1962-1968. He studied the use of polyelectrolytes as models for macromolecular substances in the living organism, membranes, and network thermodynamics. He received the Israel Prize in 1961.
George Laclavére : French Geophysicist. His main interest is in Ocenography. He was one of the 14 scientists, who were named to coordinate and lead separate parts of the International Geophysical Year program by National Academy of Science in 1956. Dr. G. Laclavére of France had the responsibility for oceanography. He met with working groups of scientists to develop the international program in oceanography.
HAROLD D. LASSWELL. Ph.D: American Political Scientist. Professor of Law and of Political Science, Yale University. He was the President of the American Political Science Association. and Former President of the World Academy of Art and Science. He is known chiefly for his studies of political terminology, his application of psychology to politics, and his attempt to construct a system of politics modeled on theories of the natural sciences. He taught his new lines of research at various Universities in the East and in the West of the U.S.A., as well as in China and Japan.
Lasswell's work was important in the post-World War II development of behavioralism. His books were Propaganda Technique in the World War; World Politics and Personal Insecurity; Politics: Who Gets What, When, How ; The Garrison State; Power and Personality. Columbia University also named him Albert Schweitzer Professor of International Affairs.
Address: Yale University, Law School, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A.
WIIXEM CAREL DE LEEUW : Plant sociologist and philosopher of Netherlands. He has been a leading scientist for many decades in Netherlands without being associated with any scientific Institution. The research of De Leeuw addresses the problems arising when visualizing time dependent data sets of living cells acquired by confocal microscopes. His work is widely acknowledged internationally. He is Doctor honoris causa of the University of Amsterdam, and President of the International Society for Plantgeography and Ecology.
Address: Roodenburgerstraat 35, Leiden, the Netherlands.
G. Le Lionnaise : Science writer of France
Professor Panchanan Maheshwari FRS : Botanist [osperm embryology], world renowned plant embryologist, was born in November 9, 1904 died in 1966. Maheshwari qualified for the DSc of the University of Allahabad in 1931 under the inspiring guidance of the American missionary teacher Dr Winfield Dudgeon. Maheshwari's doctoral research was on the embryology of the leguminous tree "Albizzia lebbek"; He was the HOD of botany, University of Delhi He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society; He was President of the Indian Botanical Society; And President of the National Academy of Sciences of India in 1964. Many contemporaries have described Maheshwari as a teacher of teachers. He has been awarded Sunderlal Hora Memorial Medal in India.
J. van Mieghem : Born in Belgium, World renowned Meteorologist. Prof. J. Van Mieghem,was the founder & Chairperson of the WMO Education and Training Programme from 1965 to 1971 Also the former president of the Commission for Aerology.
THEODORE ANDRE MONOD, D.es Sc. : French naturalist, explorer, and humanist scholar was the director of the Institut Français d’Afrique Noire and one of the founders of the World Academy of Art and Science. Corresponding Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Professor at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris.
He discovered numerous plant species as well as several important Neolithic sites. Perhaps his most important find was the Asselar man, a 6,000-year-old skeleton of the Adrar des Ifoghas that many scholars believe to be the first remains of a distinctly black individual. His famous journey through the length of the Sahara from West to East on camelback, with two Beduins only as companions, enriched significantly our knowledge of deserts and desert life in many directions.
Address: Institut Franjais d'Afrique Noire, Dakar, Senegal, West Africa
Dr. Stuart Mudd : World-renowned microbiologist of US, Dr. Stuart Mudd served the Medical School's Pathology Department, as Chairman of the Bacteriology Department, as Chairman of the Microbiology Department, and as Chief of the Microbiologic Research Program at the Philadelphia Veterans Administration Hospital. He was hailed for his work in freeze-drying blood plasma and combating patient infections in hospitals.
HERMANN JOSEPH MUIXER, M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc. : Born in New York he became popular in Genetics, molecular biology. He was the professor of zoology at Indiana University and discovered The genetic effects of Radiation. His international fame is based not only on his outstanding scientific work but also on his humanitarian activities.
He got 1946 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-rays.", Linnean Society of London's Darwin-Wallace Medal (1958) and in 1963 Humanist of the Year (American Humanist Association). He is Charter Member of the World Academy of Art and Science, and Vice President of its first Presidium.
Address: Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., U.S.A.
P. van Oye : Belgian hydro-biologist; Paul, Herman, Gustave van Oye was born at Ostend on August 24th 1886 . Got Doctors degree in Zoology and also completed Doctor of Medicine & Doctor of Tropical Medicine with 12 years gap. died on October 11th 1969. The contribution of van Oye in the field of biogeography and the ecology of plancton is of the utmost importance for Belgium. Van Oye succeeded with his students to arouse enthusiasm for biology in general and for Hydrobiology in particular .
His achievements: He was the Head Editor of the "Biologisch Jaarboek" from 1927-1969 .; Head Editor for Belgium of Oosthoek's encyclopaedia; Founder (1947), Head Editor of Hydrobiologia - Acta hydrobiologica, hydrographica et protistologica (34 volumes) ; Co-founder of the "World Scademy of Art and Science (WAAS) 1960.; Co-founder and chairman of the "Zuid-Nederlands genootschap voor de geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Wiskunde en Natuurwetenschappen", (Zuid Gewina) 1960.; Head of the laboratory for Inland Fishery at Tasikmalaya (Java); Director of the department of Sciences of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Literature and Arts of Belgium.; Secretary to the Pedagogical Institute of the State University of Ghent (1945).; Vice-chairman of the Board of Governors of the State University of Belgian Congo and Ruanda Urundi; Chairman of the Flemish Scientific Foundation (1941) ; Chairman of "Dodonaea" 1937-1969.
ROBERT OPPENHEIMER, D. Sc. : American theoretical physicist. He was the Director of the Institute of Advanced Study at Princeton. And Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1946 to 1952. He contributed towards Atomic bomb development --- Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit. And he was awarded Enrico Fermi Award.
He achieved world fame as scientist and teacher, as well as for his striving for peaceful use of atomic energy. A close co-worker of EINSTEIN, ROBERT OPPENHEIMER is one of the outstanding educationists of international influence teaching the humanitarian obligations of science, wherever the opportunity is given.
Address: Institute for Advanced Study - Princeton, N.J. U.S.A.
Francis Perrin : Born in Paris, 17 August 1901 and died on 4 July 1992; attended École Normale Supérieure, and became a faculty member of Collège de France. He was a theoretical nuclear physicist, a scientific administrator and the father of the French nuclear bomb.
He was the son of Professor Jean Perrin, a Nobel prize-winner for physics. His scientific prowess was such that he was admitted to the Ecole Normale Superieure at 17, took a doctorate in mathematical physics in 1928, passed the physics agregation, the highest competitive examination for teachers, the following year, and held the Chair of Theoretical Physics at the Sorbonne at the age of 34.; He established in 1939 the possibility of nuclear chain reactions and nuclear energy production.
He was the French high-commissionner for atomic energy from 1951 to 1970. He was one of the group who made 'Zoe', the first French reactor, from virtually nothing.; He also remained on the top secret H-bomb committee and He was on the administrative council of the Pasteur Institute from 1966 to 1969.
A. de Philippis : Environmentalist from Italy. Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali elected him as President in 1980 and he hold the post until 1992. He was famous for Oppenheimer-Phillips process; He gave a precious conceptual contribution to clarify the connections between forestry and environmental problems.
Christian Poulsen : Professor Christian Poulsen, Foreign Member, of the Mineralogical and Geological Museum of the University of Copenhagen
Boris Pregel : He was born in the Ukraine but moved to Paris after the October Revolution. In 1937 he married Alexandra Avksentev, daughter of Nikolai Avksentev. The couple moved to New York in 1940, due to the Nazi invasion of France. He was a dealer in uranium and radium; From the 1920s to the Second World War Pregel and Edgar Sengier, a Belgian mining engineer, controlled the world's supply of radium which mainly came from the Belgian Congo and Canada. Boris Pregel was president of the Canadian Radium & Uranium Corp. of New York. Pregel founded the Boris Pregel Awards for science, awarded by the New York Academy of Sciences.
Joseph Rotblat KCMG CBE FRS: A Physicisist Born in Poland he became a British citizen. He was knighted a KCMG in 1998. He served as editor-in-chief of the journal Physics in Medicine and Biology, and was the president of several institutions and professional associations. He was also a co-founder and member of the governing board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, as well as a member of the Advisory Committee on Medical Research of the World Health Organization.
His contributions are in the field of Medical physics; He campaigned for the peaceful use of nuclear technology. He was awarded Albert Einstein Peace Prize in 1992 and Nobel Peace Prize in 1995.
EARL BERTRAND A. W. RUSSELL, O.M., M.A., RR.S : British thinker, writer and mathematician. The first of three volumes of Principia Mathematica, written with Whitehead, was published in 1910, which, along with the earlier The Principles of Mathematics, soon made Russell world famous in his field. His idea of a World University (first published in 1951) is one of the major aims of the World Academy.
The name BERTRAND RUSSELL has long become a symbol of man's struggle for real freedom and peace. He was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1908. And won Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. and the UNESCO Kalinga Prize (1957).
Address: Plas Penrhyn, Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, U.K.
Arthur William Samson : American Ecologist, who innovated a new field called Range Management and contributed much towards the various aspects of education in forestry and range management.. He was elected a Fellow in the Society of American Foresters, voted a Certificate of Merit by the American Society of Range Management, given the fifth Eminent Ecologist Award by the Ecological Society of America, presented with a Distinguished Service Award by the American Forestry Association, and declared a Distinguished Alumnus by the University of Nebraska.
M. J. SIRKS, Ph.D., (Leiden) : Geneticist from Netherlands. He was the Secretary-General of International Botanical Congress, 1935; And Prpf. Emiritus in the University of Groningen. He has published a brilliant handbook on Genetics and the 5th edition was translated into English. A leading Botanist and Organizer of international cooperation in science, he was elected Secretary General of the International Union of Biological Sciences (1935-1947) and then its President (1947-1950).
Address: Genetisch Instituut, Haren (Gron.), the Netherlands.
Harlan Stetson : American astronomer and physicist. He was the Director of the MIT Cosmic Terrestrial Research Laboratory. He has performed research into the relationship between the cosmos and the Earth. His studies included sunspots, the Earth's crust, and the propagation of radio waves. The crater Stetson on the Moon is named in his honor.
W. F. G. SWANN, M.A., D.Sc., A.R.C.S.; Physicist and Philosopher, worked first at the Carnegie Institute of Washington (1913). Then in succession he became Professor of Physics at the University of Minnesota, the University of Chicago and Yale University, where he was Director of the Sloane Laboratory. In 1927 he became Director of the Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute, from which position he retired in 1959 to become Director Emeritus. He is a member of numerous scientific societies and was President of the American Physical Society in 1931-1932.
Professor SWANN is the author of some 250 scientific publications, and his outstanding contributions to science as well as his stimulating efforts towards progress in research during the last decades have won him many honorary degrees and awards in America and abroad.
Address: Bartol Research Foundation, Whittier Place, Swarthmore, Pa., U.S.A.
W. TAYLOR THOM, Jr., D.Sc : American Geologist. Chairman of the Special Committee on the Geophysical and Geological Study of Continents. Professor of Geology, Emeritus, and Chairman, Emeritus, Department of Geological Engineering, Princeton University, U.S.A. Born of an old Quaker family, he developed, already as a young geologist, how the matters of mineral-resources discovery, development and political geography have influenced the rise and decline of nations, of empires and of civilizations throughout historic times. During 1920 and 1921 he was charged with preparing an estimate of available American oil reserves, and soon achieved international fame by his work on mineral resources. He discovered that western North Dakota had at one time been at the bottom of a sea and also declared that the state had good potential for oil and gas.
Princeton University is awarding a A prize in his name as 'W. Taylor Thom Prize' in Geological Engineering. With RICHARD M. FIELD he founded the out-of- door summertime University. For his outstanding achievements he received the John Fleming Medal in 1957.
Address: 272 Snowden Lane, Princeton, N.J., U.S.A.
SOLCO W. TROMP, Ph.D: born on March 9, 1909, at Djarkarta, Indonesia. earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in geology in 1932. He died March 17, 1983, in the Netherlands. Geophysicist. He was the Secretary General of the International Society of Bioclimatology and Biometeorology He was the Director of the Bioclimatological Research Center, Leiden, Netherlands. And Secretary of the Netherlands Society of Medical Geography. . Tromp specialized in the study of phenomena connected with dowsing (water divining) about which he wrote several articles and books.; Also has written books on parapsychological subjects.
Address: Hofbrouckerlaan 54, Oegstgeest, the Netherlands.
Harold C. Urey : Born in Walkerton, Indiana US. physical chemist professor of chemistry at the Institute for Nuclear Studies, then Ryerson professor of chemistry at the University of Chicago before progressing to honorific offices at the University of California, San Diego. He is famous for his discovery of deuterium, and Miller-Urey experiment.
During World War II, Urey's team at Columbia worked on a number of research programs that contributed towards the Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb for the United States. He has written The Planets: Their Origin and Development (1952): discovery of deuterium, Miller-Urey experiment ;
He has been awarded J. Lawrence Smith Medal; Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934; Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society; Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society.
Franz Verdoorn: DR. FRANZ VERDOORN, 1906 - 1984 born in Amsterdam; died in Utrecht; Botanist (bryologist hepaticologist), biohistorian and publisher ("Chronica Botanica") Director of the biohistorical institute at the University of Utrecht since 1958 in US; DR. FRANZ VERDOORN, editor of Chronica Botanica, has been appointed research associate in the Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University.
Walter W. Weisbach : 1889-1962 Netherlands. Physician - Hygiene and National Economy. He was the head of the publishing house "Dr . W. Junk". He was an outstanding man in the world of scientific publishers, and a fine gentleman in his business and private life . He took the greatest interest in the general and the world problems of all mankind . It was one of his greatest achievements that he was one of the founders of the "World Academy of Art and Science" and author of 97 scientific articles; A complete list of his publications is to be found in the "Weisbach-Festschrift" :
He won "John Fleming Medal for Advancement of Human Welfare Through Outstanding Accomplishments in Science"