Actions to Enhance Global Security

Actions to Enhance Global Security, Zagreb, May, 2013


Pre-Conference in Zagreb on May 3-4, 2013

Actions to Enhance Global Security

May 3 – 4, 2013

The World Academy of Art and Science

The European Leadership Network

Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy

at

Hotel Dubrovnik,  Zagreb

Co-sponsored by the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and The Atlantic Council of
Croatia

Brief description of the project:

This conference was a continuation of the International Conference on Nuclear Threats & Security held in Dubrovnik, September 2012.

The aim of the conference was to formulate actions to:

  1. Assure non-proliferation of WMD and their constant reduction,
  2. Lead toward disarmament also through establishment of NWFZ and WMD Free Zones, and
  3. Reduce and finally to eliminate violent intra- and inter-state conflicts, to abolish war.

This conference was a continuation of several conferences organized in 2012 (e.g. Pugwash, Astana, Dubrovnik, London and Amman) and the plan of action will be based on many ideas exposed at these conferences. A particular attention is devoted to a unique role of NATO in helping a realization of some of these ideas.

Output

The Action Plan will be presented at the WMD NATO conference in Split, May 6 and 7, 2013, and also at the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in Dubrovnik in October 2013. Representing the Zagreb conference at the Split and Dubrovnik conferences will be Lord Des Browne, convener of European Leadership Network,. Garry Jacobs, chairman of the Board of Trustees of the World Academy of Art and Science and Ivo Šlaus, president of the World Academy of Art and Science.

Zagreb Conference - Agenda


Actions to Enhance Global Security

May 3 – 4, 2013

The World Academy of Art and Science

The European Leadership Network

Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy

 

Conference Program 

May 3, Friday -   Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs
2:00 pm Opening of the Conference
  Ivo Šlaus, President of the World Academy of Art and Science
  H.E. Prof.dr.sc. Vesna Pusić, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs (TBC)
  Ted Whiteside, NATO Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy
  H.E. Tibor Toth, Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization, Vienna
  H.E. Kassym- Jomart Tokayev, UN Under-Secretary-General
  H.E. Lord D. Browne, Convenor of the European Leadership Network
3:15 pm – 3:45 pm Coffee Break
3:45 pm – 5:15 pm Session I: Assuring Non-proliferation of WMD and their Constant Reduction
Chair A. Ware
Rapporteur S. Shetty, ELN
Panelists all participants
5:15 pm - 7:15 pm Session II: Disarmament and Establishing WMD Free Zones
Chair A. Bummel
Rapporteur Garry Jacobs, WAAS
Panelists all participants
 

Reception

  Dinner
May 4th, Saturday - Dag Hammnarskjöld University College
9:00 am - 10:30 am
Session III: Securing Nuclear Materials to Prevent Terrorism and the Role of NATO
Chair N. Neskovic, WAAS
Rapporteur Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova
Panelists all participants
10:30 am – 11:00am Coffee Break
9:30 am – 11:00 am Session IV : Toward Reduction and Eventually Elimination of Inter- and Intra-state Violence and Abolition of War
Chair M. Djurović, WAAS
Rapporteur M. Ramirez
Panelists all participants
1:30 pm – 3:00 pm Lunch with students from DHUC
3:00 pm - 5:00 pm Concluding Session
Moderators Lord Des Browne, Paolo Cotta Ramusino, Ted Whiteside and Ivo Šlaus
  Rapporteur's Reports
1:30 pm – 3:00 pm Lunch with students from DHUC

 

Zagreb Conference - Participants


Actions to Enhance Global Security, Zagreb, May 2013

Conference Participants

Asterisks indicate Fellows of WAAS

  1. Mihaela Barić, Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Zagreb
  2. Tolezhan Barlybayev, charge d’affairs, Embassy of The Republic of Kazakhstan
  3. Neven Bilić, professor of physics R. Bošković Institute, Zagreb
  4. Luka Brkić, professor Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb
  5. Lord Des Browne of Ladyton*: Former Defence Secretary of the UK and Chair of the European Leadership Network, UK
  6. Sanja Bujas-Juraga, Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Zagreb
  7. Paolo Cotta-Ramusino*: Secretary General of Pugwash; Professor of Mathematical Physics, University of Milan. Italy
  8. Astrid Couzian, Special Assistant to the DG of UNOG
  9. Momir Djurović*: President, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, Podgorica, Montenegro
  10. Neven Duić, Professor Faculty of Civil Engineering and Shipbuilding, University of Zagreb
  11. Jadranka Dujić-Frlan, The Atlantic Council of Croatia
  12. Branko Guberina, professor of physics R. Bošković Institute, Zagreb
  13. Garry Jacobs*: Chair of the Board of Trustees of WAAS; Vice-President, The Mother’s Service Society, Pondicherry, India.
  14. Ivo Josipović*, President of The Republic of Croatia
  15. Ksenija Jurišić, Professor Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb
  16. An Krumberger*, WAAS junior fellow, Slovenia
  17. Budimir Lončar. Chair of the Board of Foreign Policy Advisers to President Josipovic, Member of ELN, former foreign policy adviser to President Mesic, former minister of foreign affairs of SFR Yugoslavia, cahir Diplomatic Council Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb
  18. Stjepan Mesić*, former President of the Republic of Croatia (2000-2010)
  19. Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, California, USA
  20. Velimir Neidhardt, Vice-president Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
  21. Nebojsa Nešković*: Director of TESLA accelerator Vinča, Serbia; Chair of Nominations Committee, WAAS, Belgrade, Serbia.
  22. Marinko Ogorec, Professor Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb
  23. Boško Picula, Professor Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb
  24. Dubravka Plejić-Marković, Director, Directorate for NATO and International Security, Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Zagreb
  25. Milada Privora, Professor Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb, former head of Protocol of Presidents of Croatia
  26. Žarko Puhovski*, Professor Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb
  27. J. Martin Ramirez*: Professor, Psychobiology Dept., Universidad Complutense Madrid, Spain.
  28. Shatabhisha Shetty: Deputy Director, European Leadership Network, UK.
  29. Ivo Šlaus*: President of WAAS; Member, Pugwash Council; Dean of Dag Hammarskjold University College for International Relations and Diplomacy; Member of ELN, Zagreb, Croatia.
  30. Mladen Stanicic*: Professor, Dag Hammarskjold University College for International Relations and Diplomacy; Former Director, Institute for International Relations, Zagreb, Croatia
  31. Kassym Jomart Tokayev: UN Under-Secretary-General, Director General UN Office in Geneva
  32. Tibor Tóth, Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, Vienna
  33. Marko Trnski, Professor Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb
  34. Fredrik Vahlquist, Ambassador of Sweden in Croatia
  35. Louisa R. Vinton, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative
  36. Diana Vukičević-Samaržija, Professor Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb
  37. Alyn Ware: Founder and International Coordinator, Parliamentarians for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament; Councillor, World Future Council, New Zealand.
  38. Ted Whiteside, NATO Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy.

Students Dag Hammarskjöld university College, Zagreb

  1. Gregor Blaško
  2. Vlaho Bogoje
  3. Paula Brajović
  4. Matea Juretić
  5. Dora Jurjević
  6. Filip Kokotović
  7. Marina Kontić
  8. Luna Mišković
  9. Zoran Pamić
  10. Martina Plantak
  11. Vedran Vukelić

Zagreb Conference - Actions to Enhance Global Security - Focus on WMD and Terrorism


Rapporteur's Report for Session IV : Toward Reduction and Eventually Elimination of Inter- and Intra-state Violence and Abolition of War by Martin Ramirez

Actions to Enhance Global Security by Des Browne, Garry Jacobs & Ivo Šlaus

Aggressiveness can be psychobiologically milded: 2.How to achieve Peace by Martin Ramirez

Actions to Enhance Global Security, Zagreb, May 2013

Paper presented at “IX Annual NATO Conference on WMD Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation”
Split, Croatia, May 6-7, 2013
By Des Browne, Garry Jacobs and Ivo Šlaus

Under the auspices of the European Leadership Network, the World Academy of Art & Science and the Dag Hammarskjold University College of International Relations and Diplomacy, a group of experts propose to present a set of recommendations to conference.

Politicians are distracted with the ongoing economic crisis and instability. While understandable this is far from the only challenge facing the world as we have been discussing today. If we are to seize the opportunities of the future then we have to address the legacy of the past and nowhere is this more evident than on defense and security issues. The blunt truth is that security policies in the Euro-Atlantic region, in NATO’s back yard, remain on Cold War autopilot, strategic nuclear forces remain to be launched in minutes, thousands of tactical nuclear weapons remain in Europe, a missile defense debate remain stuck in neutral, while new security challenges such as cyber, conventional, prompt strike force, space remain contentious and inadequately addressed. The truth is this legacy contributes to tensions and mistrust across the Euro-Atlantic region and needlessly drives up risks and most importantly at a time of unprecedented austerity drives up the cost of defense. But this is about more than guns and butter. The likelihood of a major war in Europe may have practically disappeared since the end of the Cold War but this legacy with its attendant mistrust undermines any effort to build a true partnership in the Euro-Atlantic region and beyond to meet the challenges of the 21st century including what we are focusing on in this session WMD and global terrorism. The status quo, the legacy divides our continent and sets both Europe and Russia up for a future of failure but worse, a future of irrelevance in the 21st century.

The overwhelming conclusion of our experts deliberations is that we need a new approach, a new paradigm for the 21st century which is not dependent on what worked in the 20th century. Among other things, we considered the recommendations of Building Mutual Security, the report of deliberations by a group of experts and political leaders brought together by the Nuclear Threat Initiative, the European Leadership Network, the Munich Security Conference and the Russian International Affairs Council which was published on 4 April. The report’s analysis, its key findings and matrix of steps for a new cooperative global security discussion commended itself to our participants and we recommend that it be given serious consideration by our political leaders.

The world faces unprecedented challenges to global and human security. The threats facing the world are interconnected and interdependent. Current crises destroy human capital and harm and humiliate human dignity. The frustration resulting from unfulfilled expectations provides fertile grounds for terrorism. Mistrust and tensions re-inforce each other. War and violence make all problems and threats worse. Under these circumstances it is easy to lose sight of the existential threat posed by the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.

We must recognize the progress that has been made in reducing the number of nuclear warheads by about 75% since the end of the Cold War. And that number is decreasing still. But at the same time, we must acknowledge our collective failures. The number of nuclear armed states has increased, and this proliferation has taken place in the most unstable regions and in some of the unstable regimes of the world. The CTBT is still not ratified and stalemate prevents progress on the FMCT. We know terrorists are striving to obtain access to nuclear weapons and materials. Although the world has succeeded in avoiding use of these weapons for the past 68 years, there is no assurance that this record of no-use will be maintained in future as the present very dangerous confrontation with North Korea should make evident.

We are far from being able to guarantee the security of existing nuclear weapons and materials. Recent experience in both North Korea and Syria demonstrates that a deterrence strategy based on the threat of use of WMD has failed to deter both threats of use and actual use of WMD. Inconclusive evidence has emerged suggesting that chemical weapons have been used. If it is true, it would be a very serious precedent and maybe also the breach of a red line followed by impunity. New thinking is called for and NATO has a special obligation to take the lead in that thinking.

Before coming to specific proposals, we would do well to ponder some fundamental questions related to nuclear weapons. Answers to these questions will reflect our willingness to take the courageous actions necessary to address the threats that they pose.

  • Is there presently a problem that nuclear weapons solve that is a greater danger than the weapons themselves?
  • Can a nonproliferation regime based on the premise of do as we say and not as we do be sustained?
  • When the world’s most powerful military alliance in human history claims a need for these deployments for security, what message does a weak state in a dangerous region hear?
  • Do the weapons provide prestige or military value?
  • Can the resources of NATO not come up with a better way of enhancing security and thus set an example that can truly be emulated by all nations?

Now for our specific proposals, which are by necessity limited to a small number of priorities, but at my presentation suggests, are part of a longer list of necessary steps

  1. Reduce the role of NW in NATO Strategic Concept and national security doctrines of NWS members of the Alliance
    a. Elimination of US non-strategic NW from Europe
    b. Build-up the non-nuclear aspects of NATO security concept and explore ways to provide US
    assurances of commitments without stationing of NW in Europe
    c. Commit not to use NW against a non-nuclear-weapon state under any circumstances
  2. Make NATO-Russia missile defense cooperation more productive and report on results in spring 2014; US and Russia to engage in negotiations on further reductions in nuclear arsenals, including all types of nuclear weapons 
  3. Demonstrate good faith commitment to achieving a world without nuclear weapons and, in this regard, engage seriously and constructively in the deliberations of the Open-Ended Working Group
    on taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations, which will commence its substantive work in Geneva on May 14, 2013.
  4. Call on NPT depositaries and co-sponsors of the 1995 Resolution on a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction to exert all efforts to convene the
    Conference on the zone, as mandated by the final document of the 2010 NPT Review Conference, as soon as possible. Call also on states in the region to engage constructively with the Facilitator (Ambassador Jaakko Laajava) and with each other to agree on modalities and agenda of the Conference at an early date.
  5. Reaffirm that any use of chemical and biological weapons is unacceptable.

NATO is in many ways a unique structure. One of the three pillars of NATO is Science for Peace and Security. Scientific research is among the most important generators of our global fast changing world. The world is no longer a bipolar confrontation, but our common global home. NATO should and can fulfill a role of a significant actor guaranteeing global and human security.


“IX Annual NATO Conference on WMD Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation”
Split, Croatia, May 6-7, 2013
Transcript of Remarks by Garry Jacobs

The current policy of the P5 nuclear powers has been to separate the issues of non-proliferation and disarmament as far as possible, implying that non-proliferation is the responsibility of all signatories to the Non-Proliferation Treaty whereas disarmament is an issue solely under the purview of the nuclear powers themselves. As a senior UN official pointed out, the failure to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons proves that this approach is inherently flawed. The issues of non-proliferation and disarmament are inseparable. Non-proliferation in the absence of complete nuclear disarmament is wishful thinking and unachievable. Lack of progress on disarmament is itself a stimulus to proliferation. The pressure and incentives for proliferation are growing, as these weapons have come to be perceived as a means of acquiring political power and prestige.

It was encouraging to hear a representative of the P5 acknowledge that any use of nuclear weapons would constitute a violation of international humanitarian law. Even in the event that North Korea should choose to use a nuclear weapon, it would not justify retaliation against that country by nuclear weapons, in which case huge numbers of innocent civilians would perish. Conventional weapons would be more than sufficient to totally destroy North Korea’s military capabilities without resort to nuclear weapons. The sole circumstances under which the International Court of Justice conceded that the use of these weapons might not be illegal is in the event of imminent threats to a nation’s very survival, not as a means of retaliation against aggressors, even nuclear aggressors.

Harlan Cleveland, Former NATO Ambassador and WAAS President, has stated that NATO officials knew even in the late 1960s that nuclear weapons were unusable, an idea repeated by several NATO
representatives in this conference. Retention of these weapons during the Cold War may have been understandable, but the continued inclusion of nuclear weapons in NATO and national military strategies more than two decades after the end of the Cold War is indefensible.

The emphasis placed by some participants on the building trust between NATO and Russia cannot be sufficiently emphasized. Recent events in Syria demonstrate that it is difficult for the UN Security Council to address any international issue without the active cooperation of Russia. Indeed, the constitution of NATO as a cooperative security system makes it essential. The logic of cooperative security compels it. The larger the number of countries incorporated within a cooperative security system, the greater its strength and the less the potential treat from countries outside the alliance. Those omitted from its ranks necessarily regard it as a competitive threat and feel compelled to enhance their own military capabilities in response. Incorporation of Russia within NATO would represent a natural step in the evolution of the alliance from a regional to a global cooperative security system. Therefore it is reasonable to inquire of NATO what plans it has conceived and measures is it taking to bring about this most desirable outcome.

Today the world is subject to innumerable threats to its security, among which the proliferation or use of weapons of mass destruction is an important element, but certainly not the one what poses the most immediate threat to the security of the greatest number of human beings. Rising levels of unemployment, persistent poverty, financial instability, climate change, terrorism in all forms are ever-present threats impacting on the lives of hundreds of millions of people daily. Therefore it is essential to keep in mind that a military alliance by itself can never assure security to its members or the world. Human security must be conceived and approached comprehensively. Efforts to contain terrorism are essential, but by themselves they will never eliminate the threat of terrorism unless the underlying causes are removed. This is the rationale for the work of the World Academy on a comprehensive approach to addressing global challenges in the 21st century, which is the theme of an upcoming conference co-organized by the Academy and the United Nations in Geneva on June 3rd, 2013.

Zagreb Conference - Photos


Actions to Enhance Global Security, Zagreb, May 2013

Conference Photos

Clockwise: Alyn Ware, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, Tibor Tóth, Ted Whiteside, Paolo Cotta-Ramusino, Ivo Šlaus

Desmond Browne

Left to Right: Ivo Šlaus, Astrid Couzians, Ankica Marinovic, Garry Jacobs, Ivo Josipović, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev & Louise Vinton